2. The true bearing to a point is the angle measured in degrees in a clockwise direction from the north line. The surveyor's bearing and distance values, known as "survey pairs", found in the record of new roads, often use a notation and units not familiar to us 21 st century folks. Survey bearings are "true" using the north pole as a reference. Obviously, the angle to XY is much smaller than the angle to AM. However, compass bearings are magnetic, and they point to the magnetic north pole (which moves around a bit). To acquaint you with the style of compass bearings and units of distance measure, the following explanations and interactive calculators are offered. There are four types of bearings most commonly used in land navigation: true bearings. I’m a former electrical engineer turned airline pilot who is also proficient in celestial navigation, so I’ve got the background in chart reading, bearings, True/Mag N, etc. For example, if the bearings of the lines BA and AC are given, then to find angle at A, the bearings of AB must be obtained. True bearing: The true bearing of a line belongs to the horizontal angle among the true meridian and the survey line. Both values would be the “true” azimuth. grid bearings. In addition, I’m also using an app for my iPad called “Theodolite” that actually works and is … Magnetic bearing: The magnetic bearing of a line belongs to the horizontal angle that the line creates with the magnetic north. Express both the bearings as if they are measured from the point where the lines intersect and then apply the above rule. We will refer to the true bearing simply as the bearing . The bearing of AB is the back bearing of BA and is equal to bearing … magnetic bearings. True bearing: True bearing of a line is the horizontal angle which it makes with the true meridian (through one of the extremities of the line). Bearings are classified into three types: True bearing; Magnetic bearing; Arbitrary Bearing; True bearing. Since the direction of true meridian remains fixed hence the true bearing of a line is constant. So for local surveying purposes, the “north” of the central meridian is adopted. ENGI 3703 Surveying and Geomatics Topic Instructor: Prof. Ken Snelgrove Lect 9 - Oct 1/07 Slide 5 of 10 Angle Measurement and Azimuth Calculations Azimuth Computation (Section 7.9) (don’t worry about bearing calcs in 7.10) For a closed polygon we often wish … Introduction to Bearing and Distance Calculations. Plant North But the lines XY and AB are supposed to be parallel. The angle made by a survey line with respect to magnetic meridian is known as magnetic bearing. A true bearing is measured using the direction toward the geographic north pole as a reference point. Thereby we see the logic in accepting a grid system for local surveying purposes. The compass itself consists of a magnetic needle, regulated by a magnetic force, with a red tip that floats on a pivot point. compass bearings. The true bearing is calculated from the true north in the clockwise direction. It always remains constant. If the variation is WEST, add it to the true reading If the variation is EAST, subtract it from the true reading For example, the true direction is 278 degrees and the variation is 6 degrees WEST, then the magnetic reading is 272 degrees. Magnetic bearing. Reading a compass allows you to determine the bearing, or direction, location and how to get to a specific destination on a topographic map---a map which describes the shape of the land. 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